Newton's Mathematical Discoveries
Like many scientists, Newton found that existing algebra and geometry weren't sufficient enough for his scientific needs. During that time period mathematicians could calculate the speed of something but they were unable to figure out the rate at which it is accelerating. They could also measure the angle of something but there was no way of calculating at which angle it would send it the farthest. Therefore, they needed a mathematical means to calculate problems that allows changing variables.
Newton faced this problem during the outbreak of the bubonic plate. Newton spent 18 months formulating of the origins of what is called "the science of fluxions", which we know as calculus today. Calculus is a critical tool for physicists, economosits, and probability scientists. Apollo engineers in the 1960s were also able to chart a course from the Earth to the moon through the use of calculus.